COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница

D) to establish which gorilla is the leader of a troop

E) communication with the other members of the troop

2. According to the passage

A) scientists have found shorter gorillas to be more violent

B) only the leader of the troop of gorillas beats his chest

C) gorillas beat their chests for various reasons

D) a gorilla's charge never needs to be taken seriously

E) gorillas are easily trained to appear in films

3. After a fight with his opponent, the gorilla

A) does not act triumphantly

B) beats his chest as an expression of relief

C) breaks the opponent's backbone

D) drums his chest furiously

E) behaves exactly as portrayed in COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница films

EXERCISE 3: Complete the sentences by selecting words from Column B in EXERCISE 1.

1. The students were all in as it was the last day of the semester.

2. His manner with the staff is so that most of them are too scared to

speak to him.

3. His hands were around his mouth as he called to his friends on the

other side of the field.

4. As a child she had many operations to straighten her and, thus, enable

her to walk properly.

5. We knew as soon as the burglar alarms went off that there was a/an in

the building.

READING

L0VE Ilk 1

For COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница most of us, love is the most absorbing subject in

existence. There is an enormous range of meanings in this one little

word: motherly love and self-love, fatherly love and children's love fc

their parents; there is brotherly love and there is the love of one's home and

one's country; there is love of money and there is love of power. Love clearly

includes all of these, but the love in which one can be oneself is the pre-eminent

love for most of us. Love at its fullest can include an enormous range of emotions

and sentiments. It can combine humility with COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница pride, passion with peace, selfassertion

with self-surrender; it can reconcile violence of feeling with tenderness.

"Being in love" is love at its most intense, and is personally focused in a very special

way. Our common speech reflects this fact, as we talk of "falling in love" as if it were

something into which we are precipitated against our will, like falling into a pond.

EXERCISE 1: Find words or phrases in the passage which mean the same as:

COLUMN A COLUMN B

a) very interesting, taking up a lot of one's time

b) the best of all; having better qualities than the

others in the same COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница group

c) attitude based on one's thoughts and feelings

d) modesty

e) satisfaction with something one has achieved;

self-respect

f) self-confidence; ability to speak on one's own

behalf

g) find an agreement between things that are

opposed

h) gentleness

i) cause to happen suddenly and unexpectedly

j) small area of water, often man-made

80 • ELS

EXERCISE 2: Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1. Love, according to the passage,

A) makes us experience all emotions more intensely

B) enables the balancing of extreme feelings

C) happens against our will

D) is only real when we are "in love"

E) is sometimes really difficult to achieve

2. It is stated COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница in the passage that

A) we frequently mention love in our speech

B) there are various kinds of love

C) nobody wants to "fall in love"

D) it requires effort to maintain any kind of love

E) everyone is more interested in love than in anything else

3. The writer states that, generally, the most important kind of love

A) absorbs us more than anything in existence

B) occurs when we feel that we are "in love"

C) is "fallen into" and happens against our will

D) is the one which allows us to behave as we are

E) can only be possessed by emotional people

EXERCISE 3: Complete the sentences COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница by selecting words from Column B in EXERCISE 1.

1. Today's lecture will be given by the man who is in this particular field of

science.

2. Attempts are being made to ; the management and the workers and

bring an end to the strike.

3. That book was so that I could hardly put it down for a minute.

4. The things he just said reflect my on the matter entirely.

5 is all very well, but you won't get the job if you don't talk about your

achievements.

ВАРИАНТ 18

READINGTHE MIND'S EYE

Which weighs more, a pound of feathers or a pound of lead COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница? Everyone knows

the answer: they both weigh the same. An interesting point, however, is what sort of

image popped into your head when you read those words. One person who

answered this question saw, distinctly, a pair of scales with a cube of lead on one

scale balancing a big mound of feathers on the other. A second person got no

mental image, but simply conceived of the problem in terms of words. People differ

greatly in their power to "make pictures in their heads." Years ago the British

scientist Sir Francis Galton asked a group of colleagues to try to visualize the

breakfast table as they had sat COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница down to eat that morning. Some of them saw the

table in sharp detail and in colour. Others saw it only in black and white. Still others

saw a blurred outline, as if through a badly adjusted magic lantern. Many could get

no visual image at all. Scientists believe that most people are born with the ability to

summon up in the mind's eye precise visual images of past experiences, but that

many of us lose this power as we grow up, simply because we fail to exercise it.

EXERCISE 1: Find words or phrases in the passage which mean the same as COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница:



COLUMN A COLUMN B

a) one of the light things which cover a bird's skin

and gives the bird its colour

b) soft, heavy metal

c) go or come quickly (in or out)

d) instrument for weighing with two pans that have

to be balanced (phrase)

e) solid which has six equally-sized square sides

f) pile; heap

g) imagine; form an idea in the mind

h) clear; distinct

i) unclear; indistinct; confused in appearance

j) old-fashioned device for projecting pictures

onto a screen

k) gather together; bring into existence (phrase)

I) in imagination; in memory (phrase)

82 • ELS

EXERCISE 2: Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1. We can infer that COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница Sir Francis Galton's aim was

A) to measure people's ability to picture past experiences

B) to discover what his colleagues had eaten for breakfast

C) to find out how much attention his colleagues paid to their domestic surroundings

D) to assess the incidence of colour-blindness

E) to provide practice in making pictures in one's head

2. The writer states that

A) most people cannot visually recall events as recent as that morning

B) some people are completely unable to guess at the weight of something

C) past experiences become less important to us as we grow up

D) there is no difference between feathers and lead

E COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница) not all people have the same ability to visualize things

3. People's ability to recall past experiences visually

A) depends on how far in the past they were

B) often diminishes with the passing years

C) eventually decreases despite exercise

D) enables us to keep precise pictures of them

E) varies according to the words used to describe them

EXERCISE 3: Complete the sentences by selecting words from Column B in EXERCISE 1.

1. Before you leave, just in and say goodbye.

2. I was so tired that I had to all my strength just to climb the stairs to

bed.

3. The camera lens must have had a fingerprint COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница on it, because all our photos are

4. I hope the pillows aren't filled with as I'm allergic to them.

5 people see their holiday destinations as far more beautiful than they

actually are.

ELS o 83

READING

THE WILL TO LIVE

A very old lady who had devoted her life to pioneer work in education once told

about a dangerous illness she had suffered in her middle years. She lay hovering

between life and death, in the twilight of half-surrender, when she overheard two of

her co-workers talking just outside her hospital room. "If we could only reach her!"

one of them said passionately. "If we COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница could only make her understand how much we

need her!" The words did reach her, and with the forces of life and death hanging in

the balance, they resurrected her will to live. In that moment of discouragement and

wavering faith, the intensity of her colleague's plea reassured her and gave her

courage to take up the struggle again. If we truly wish to live, if we have something

to live for, then the will to live becomes a powerful force in combatting illness. Within

each of us there are two strong instinctual drives, the will to live and the desire to

destroy ourselves. The powerful COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница instinct to remain alive is bolstered by our desire to

create, to discover and to accomplish. Doctors make obeisance to it when, in a crisis

of illness, they say, "We have done all we can - now it is up to the patient."

EXERCISE 1: Find words or phrases in the passage which mean the same as:

COLUMN A COLUMN B

a) give time, effort or energy for a particular

purpose

b) first in a new branch of study or particular

activity

c) be in an uncertain or unsettled situation

d) final stages; state between two other states,

with little awareness

e) make contact with

f) be between two possibilities {phrase COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница)

g) cause to exist again or be used again

h) determination; strong desire

i) not firm or confident

j) intense, emotional request

k) calm; remove worries

I) fight to stop something happening

m) natural; not based on thought or teaching

n) encourage; support

o) respect

84 • ELS

EXERCISE 2: Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1. We can infer that when the patient heard her colleagues talking

A) it was during the early evening

B) she had virtually given up trying to stay alive

C) she realized that she had a fatal illness

D) they were not allowed to go into her hospital room

E) she had difficulty understanding them

2. The old lady

A) lost COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница her faith after her illness

B) was the most important member of the work team

C) was unable to receive visitors when she was ill

D) had been left to die by her doctors

E) worked in new fields of study in education

3. The writer concludes that in fighting illness, it is important to

A) have friends and colleagues around you

B) be able to rely on your doctor

C) have a purpose in life

D) hear others speaking

E) have a lot of courage

EXERCISE 3: Complete the sentences by selecting words from Column B in EXERCISE 1.

1. When a person tries to commit suicide, it is often more of COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница a for help

than an actual attempt to take one's own life.

2. We have been trying to them on the phone for the last hour, but there's

been no answer.

3. No matter how much you her, she still thinks everything will go wrong.

4. There's no point in trying to that old plan. It didn't work before, and it

won't work now.

5. She herself to various charities, for which she raises money tirelessly.

ВАРИАНТ 19

DEBATE OVER THE WORLD'S FUTURE

How many people can the earth hold? Will birth and death rates continue to

1 decline? Can food production keep pace with population growth COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница? Can technology

I supplement or replace today's resources? What are the long-term effects of pollution

1 on health, climate, and farm production? Debate over such issues has spawned

I many volumes, as scholars look to the future with varying degrees of optimism and

1 gloom. In a lecture titled "The Terror of Change", Patricia Gulas Strauch cited three

I aspects of our future about which there is little disagreement: the speed of change

I will accelerate; the world will be increasingly complex; and nations and world issues

I will be increasingly interdependent. Today's problems - which face Third World

1 megacities in particular - cannot be ignored by developed COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница countries. We cannot look

I to the past for solutions as there is no precedent for such growth. We are in

1 uncharted, challenging waters.

EXERCISE 1: Find words or phrases in the passage which mean the same as:

COLUMN A COLUMN B

a) become smaller; decrease

b) add something to

c) take something's place, instead of it

d) discussion involving different opinions

e) important subject or question causing

discussion

f) cause to happen or be created; produce in

great numbers

g) publication, e.g. a book, published articles, etc

h) person with great knowledge, usually of a

particular subject

i) belief or feeling that the future will be good

j) feeling of unhappiness COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница or being without hope

k) way of thinking about something; part of

something's nature

I) get faster; speed up or cause to speed up

m) relying on each other

n) similar happening or occurrence that existed

previously

o) unfamiliar situations (idiom)

p) requiring effort and determination in order to

succeed

86 • ELS

EXERCISE 2: Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1. The points put forward in the lecture "The Terror of Change"

A) have changed scholars from a sense of optimism to one of gloom

B) are, for the most part, accepted

C) had not been considered by scholars previously

D) caused much debate and disagreement

E) filled several volumes

2. According to the COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница writer, having no equivalents in the past

A) analyses formulated by experts are open to discussion

B) books on the world's problems cause a great deal of debate

C) Third World megacities are not sufficiently aided

D) modern technological developments do not meet the needs of the people

E) today's problems require new solutions

3. The outlook for the world's future

A) arouses optimism in some experts, yet pessimism in others

B) is a repetition of events which occurred in the past

C) depends entirely on technological advances made today

D) is one of overpopulation, pollution, and reduced farm production

E) shows that the population will soon exceed the earth COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница's capacity

EXERCISE 3: Complete the sentences by selecting words from Column B in EXERCISE 1.

1. If you when you cycle down this hill, you should build up enough

speed to get up the next hill without too much effort.

2. Although we've looked at this problem in almost every one of its we

have yet to discuss the question of finance.

3. His second of poetry will come out towards the end of the month.

4. There's no point in just giving them easy exercises all the time. They need something more

if they are to make any progress.

5. You could take vitamin COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница tablets to your diet, but increasing your intake

of fruit and vegetables would probably be better in the long run.

ELS • 87

THE IMPORTANCE OF LETTER-WRITING

The letters we write can spell the difference between making and missing an

important sale, between landing and losing a job, between a yes and a no from the

girl or boy of our dreams. A neighbor of mine recently wrote to two contractors for

bids on a concrete driveway. Here's the beginning of one reply: "Dear Mr : I

am offering you a special price because I am having a slack season now. I have

some debts to pay COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница and this work will be a big help to me." The second began: "Dear

Mr : 1 can give you a good solid driveway with a six-inch bed of cinders and

three inches of concrete. Properly graded and drained, this should last you 20 years

without cracking." The second man got the job. Why? Because he told my neighbor

what he wanted to know, not how much good the job would do the contractor. He

followed the first principle of good letter-writing, one I've hammered at in my classes

for years: think of your reader's problems, not of your own.

EXERCISE 1: Find words or phrases COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница in the passage which mean the same as:

COLUMN A COLUMN B

a) mean; have as a consequence; suggest that a

particular result will occur

b) successfully get; obtain

c) person who does a particular job, especially

building work

d) statement of the price to be charged for doing

a piece of work

e) private short road, or piece of hard ground,

leading from the public road to a house or

garage

f) period of inactivity in business, when there is

very little work to be done (phrase)

g) strong, without holes or spaces, and able to

support weight

h) small pieces of coal, wood, etc., after they have

been burnt COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница, but not to ash

i) made as level as possible by reducing the

slope (of land)

j) made so that water can flow away; able to

become dry (after rain, etc.)

k) damage, leaving lines or splits on the surface

I) repeat forcefully; say again and again to have

an effect

88 • ELS

EXERCISE 2: Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1. A letter, according to the writer,

A) is a better way of making contact than a phone call

B) should be relevant to the reader's situation

C) is the best way to ask a girl out

D) must have correct spelling

E) should always begin with "Dear"

2. From COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница the statement the writer makes in the passage, we can conclude that

A) the writer's neighbor is a builder

B) most people are only interested in themselves

C) the writer prefers writing to making direct contact

D) the writer is a teacher

E) it takes years to perfect the art of letter-writing

3. The main point of the passage is

A) how a good letter can affect the result

B) the best way to get driveway work done professionally

C) that it's essential to compare costs when you want work done

D) the importance of good spelling in a letter

E) never to accept the first offer you COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница receive

EXERCISE 3: Complete the sentences by selecting words from Column B in EXERCISE 1.

1. I this cup while I was doing the washing-up, but I think it's still usable.

2. We can't award the contract for building the new factory to anyone until all the

have come in.

3. In the centre of the room, there was a huge antique table made of oak.

4. She the point into her children's heads that they were never, under any

circumstances, to go anywhere with a stranger.

5. How did someone like him, with so little experience, manage to such a

prestigious job?

ВАРИАНТ 20

THE WIND'S COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница WITH US

A strong wind had started up, whistling and moaning through the thick leaves,

and frightening Sue and Anne. CRASH! They heard a loud smashing noise as a tree

came down in a large gust. They took refuge under the gateway of a building and

were not sure what to do. Sue doubted whether they would have the strength to

cycle all the way home. But they couldn't just go on waiting there much longer. "We'd

better go then. If we can't ride our bikes we'll just have to push them. Or perhaps

we'll be able to get a COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница lift on a truck." Sue went out, her short hair blowing in the wind.

It was impossible to speak, so she just beckoned to Anne to start out. As they

pushed their bicycles unsteadily onto the road, Sue suddenly shouted, "Hey! The

wind's with us!" Anne got onto her bicycle. There was no need to pedal - all she had

to do was hold onto the handlebars. She felt an almost unreal sense of exhilaration,

as if she were floating through the air. "The wind's with us!" Sue shouted again, her

voice filled with surprise and elation. "Even we have the COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница wind with us sometimes, eh?"

EXERCISE 1: Find words or phrases in the passage which mean the same as:

COLUMN A COLUMN B

a) make a loud, high clear note or sound as

something moves quickly through the air

b) make a low sound, as if sad or in pain

c) sudden, very strong rush of wind

d) go to a place that is safe and provides shelter

and protection (phrase)

e) entrance through a fence, outdoor wall, etc.,

where there is a structure similar to a door

f) find someone who will take you somewhere in

their car, or other vehicle for free (phrase)

g) signal to someone by a COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница movement of the hand

or arm

h) shakily; without complete control

i) part of a bicycle which you hold onto, used for

steering

j) strong feeling of excitement, happiness and of

being alive

k) be supported by air or water and move gently

I) great happiness and delight

90 • ELS

EXERCISE 2: Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1. We understand that

A) Sue and Anne were not far from home

B) a building was damaged when the tree was blown down

C) on this particular occasion, Sue and Anne were lucky

D) the falling tree barely missed landing on Anne and Sue

E) Sue and Anne were in a forest when the wind COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница started

2. At first, the wind

A) blew down the tree Sue and Anne were sheltering under

B) made it impossible for Anne and Sue to hear each other

C) prevented Sue and Anne from continuing their journey

D) appeared to be with Sue and Anne

E) caused Anne and Sue to fall off their bicycles

3. From Sue's first statement - "The wind's with us!" - it's clear that

A) Sue was much braver than Anne

B) the wind was blowing in the direction they were travelling

C) the wind wasn't as strong as they'd originally thought

D) she was trying to stop Anne from becoming too frightened

E COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница) the wind was starting to drop as they set out

EXERCISE 3: Complete the sentences by selecting words from Column B in EXERCISE 1.

1. I looked up and saw her frantically to me from across the road.

2. The injured dog was lying on the side of the road softly to itself.

3. The little boy let go of his balloon and laughed happily as it off above

the trees.

4. When the rain started to pour down, we in an old church and stayed

there until it stopped.

5. A bullet past his head, only narrowly missing him.

ELS • 91

EXERCISE 1: Find words or phrases in the passage COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница which mean the same as:

COLUMN A COLUMN B

a) the process of breaking up food in the body

b) increase; become greater

c) kept at a certain rate or level; continued

d) continuing for a long time or for longer than

expected

e) not relaxed; tense

f) without moisture; without emotion

g) inflexible; unbending; not able or not willing to

change

h) allow yourself to show or express something;

allow something to come out (phrase)

i) prevented from being expressed; held back

j) cause to happen

k) illness, often painful and long-lasting though

seemingly not serious

I) crying

m) turning round; changing to become opposite

n) collapse; strong depression

o) period or process of COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница change from one condition

to another

p) real; true

q) urge; feeling of having to do something

92 • ELS

WEEP FOR HEALTH

Anger, fear, or the shock of sudden sorrow brings physical changes in our

bodies. The digestion is shut down, the blood pressure is raised, the heart speeds

up, and the skin becomes cold. If maintained over a prolonged period, this

emergency status makes the body - and the personality - tight, dry and rigid. In

people who are afraid to let themselves pour forth their painful emotions, doctors find

that suppressed tears can trigger such ailments as asthma, migraine headache, and

many others. Weeping, on the other hand, comes as part COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница of the reversal of

conditions of alarm, shock and anger. Tears do not, therefore, mark a breakdown or

low point, but a transition to warmth, hope and health. So there is a genuine wisdom

in tears. In permitting ourselves to weep instead of repressing the impulse, we help

ourselves to health.

EXERCISE 2: Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1. From the statement in the passage, we can infer that some people

A) regard crying as a weakness or failure

B) don't consult their doctors about certain ailments

C) find that migraine headaches cause them to weep

D) develop personality problems from ailments such as asthma

E) go to COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница the doctor for emotional reasons more than for physical

2. According to the writer, not crying

A) is a common characteristic of asthmatics

B) is a sign that a person is in poor health

C) causes the digestion to shut down

D) helps us to control our feelings of shock or anger

E) can bring on many unpleasant side-effects

3. In the writer's opinion

A) people should visit their doctors in times of emotional emergency

B) we need to cry in order to recover from traumas

C) weeping can cause alarm, shock, or even anger in others

D) doctors don't do enough to help patients with emotional COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница problems

E) crying when we feel ill is as beneficial as visiting the doctor

EXERCISE 3: Complete the sentences by selecting words from Column B in EXERCISE 1.

1. When a broken bone is treated, it needs to be supported by something

while it's mending so that it cannot move out of position.

2. The demonstration, which happened almost without warning, was by

the government's announcement that taxes are going to be increased by thirty percent.

3. I think you are wrong about her just pretending to be interested in our case. I think her

concern is

4. Ater twenty years as a teacher of indisciplined students he suffered COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница a/an

and was unable to work again.

5. If I went shopping every time I felt the to buy something new, I'd be

absolutely broke in no time at all!

ВАРИАНТ 21

THE BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGY j

Science and technology are getting a bad press these days. Increasingly

scornful of the materialism of our culture, some people speak about returning to a

simpler, pre-industrial, pre-scientific day. They fail to realize that the "good old days" 1

were actually horribly bad old days of ignorance, disease, slavery, and death. They I

fancy themselves in Athens, talking to Socrates or watching the latest play by

Sophocles COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница but never as a slave brutalized in the Athenian silver mines. They

imagine themselves as medieval knights on armoured chargers but never as

starving peasants. They also ignore the fact that, before modern technology, the full I

flower of art and human intellect was reserved for the few. It was the technical

advances that brought many of the marvels of mankind to even the poorest.

EXERCISE 1: Find words or phrases in the passage which mean the same as:

COLUMN A COLUMN B

a) be criticized in the media (phrase)

b) feeling and showing that something deserves

no respect; showing contempt

c) lack of knowledge

d) system of people being COLUMN A COLUMN B 3 страница owned by other people


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